Alen J Salerian*
Received: May 11, 2018; Published:May 16, 2018
*Corresponding author: Alen J Salerian, Institution Modern psychiatry, ZAIMI 8, Paleo Falero, 17562, Athens Greece, Tel: 306983723947; Email: email@example.com
This study provides scientific evidence to suggest that human cells may transform to microorganisms and represent an independent source of some infections. Evidence consistent with the 99.9% probability of this hypotheses to be correct is presented.Two questions ”Do 38 trillion microorganisms that live in human bodyalways come from outside ?” and “ Do host cellshave the essentials totransform to microorganisms ?” prompt a reviewof genetic, epidemiological , biological and clinicalobservationsin support of thecentral hypotheses.The followingtenobservations are of essence
a) Host cells do have the essentials to produce microorganisms.
b) Human cells transform to other cells such as cancer and stem cells.
c) Rare scavenger microorganisms unelated to normal flora are crucial in corpse decomposition.
d) Opportunistic infections by microorganisms of higher geneticcomplexity emerge upon severeinjuries causingmassivecellular regeneration and death.
e) Aspergillus fumigatus grow in abundancein organic matter such as decaying leaves. andin the outdoor air oflarge scale compostingof sewagesludge factories.
f) Pseudomonasaeruginosaa common cause of opportunistic infections -have larger genome size and higher genetic complexity. g) Genetic influences play an important role in some infections in immunocompetenthosts.
g) Genetic influences play an important role in some infections in immunocompetenthosts.
h) Some infections emerge without host to host transmission.
i) Extraordinary stress from diverse origins may trigger transformation of human cells to microorganisms consistent with the proven link between diverse infections, disorders and changes in host bacterial community.
j) Most reactions on earth are bi-directional. The Implication of theobservation that human cells may transform to bacteria or fungusare:
i. Some infections may be caused by human cells transforming to microorganisms.
ii. Some opportunistic and nosocomial infections may represent transformation of human cells to virulent microorganisms.
iii. Prevention and treatment of infections should address possible transformation of bacteria from human cells.
iv. Experimental validation of the central hypotheses is necessaryandmight bedemonstrated by experimental transformation of stressed or dying human cells to microorganisms.
Keywords: Bacteria, Transformation, Infection
The numbers of bacteria that live in human body are estimated to be 38 trillion with their projected weight of 200 g . Microorganisms play an important role in maintaining normal human function and can also cause infections in complex multicellular organisms. In 1880 Pasteur demonstrated exposure to microorganisms was necessary for fermentation and infections. Since then the germ theory has become a central paradigm for medicine . A recent hypotheses suggested pathways independent of exposure to microorganisms from human cells may produce infections, suggested that exposure and transformation are not mutually exclusive andthus exposure tomicroorganismsby itselfcannotinvalidate independent pathways of bacterial or fungal growth .
Consistent with the germ theory, the current medical guidelines to prevent and treat infectious disorders presume that all infections originate from microorganisms invading a human host or a complex multi cellular organism.For instance hospital infections often caused by relatively rare microorganisms such as pseudomonas aeroginisa or aspergillus fumigatus are presumed to be associated with less than perfectsterile conditions of medical equipment or hospital environment. In general our traditional medical understanding and treatment of infectious disorders seem tobe scientifically sound and well proven. However is it possible that some infections may have origins independent of existing microorganisms? Is it possible for some infections to originate from the transformation of human cells to bacteria or fungus under special conditions?
A simple reason to consider an independent pathway for bacterial or fungal infections is because traditional medical understanding and treatment of infectious disorders based upon the germ theory seems to clash with our knowledge of the origin of life on earth. Earth sciences suggest the earth was lifeless for billions of years before the arrival of bacteria and other unicellular organisms.Over a long period of time unicellular organisms have evolved into complex multi cellular organisms including human beings.In essence we know that, microorganisms may originate from nonliving things andthey do not always have to be generated from existing microorganisms. Diverse observations suggest bacteria may grow in sterile environments without exposure, first bacteria , bacteria discovered in remote regions below the earth surface) .
This hypothesis prompts two questions.
A. Can host cells transform to other living cells?
B. Do host cells have the properties to generate microorganisms that created the first bacteria on earth?
i. Unicellular organisms may transform to other living cells (human cells transform to cancer cellsor stem cells transform to specialized cells . Transformation of streptococcusto pneumococcus  and between pneumococcusand three strains of streptococci have been demonstrated . Also a stable leu2- yeast strain has been transformed to LEU2+ by using a chimeric ColE1 plasmid carrying the yeast leu2 gene . Also shown are: transformation of Salmonella typhimurium by plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid , Escherichia coli cells undergo plasmid transfection . Naturally competent bacteria are able to undergo genetic transformation .
ii. Human cells contain the necessary ingredients –water, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen-to transform to bacteria. This is how unicellular life began on earth 3.5 billion years ago . Also, human cells produce energy (fermentation) .
By now, we have proven that human cells contain the properties to generate microorganisms and they are capable to transform to bacteria or fungus. The following genetic, epidemiological, biological and clinicalobservations are ofessence and provide support for theinternal production of microorganismsand not due toexposure or external origin.
A. Normal Flora and the Ubiquitous Presence of Bacteria: Normal flora and the ubiquitous presence of bacteria in soil and in extremely isolated places may suggest that the initial conditions that let microorganisms and bacteria grow from earth may still generate bacteria anywhere .
B. Stress of Diverse Aetiology may Alter Host Biology: Is it possible for stress of diverse causation to trigger intracellular changes to transform host cells to microorganisms?.Host bacterial community plays a significant role in protecting host against diverse disorders and infections.Diverse disordersincluding obesity , gum disease , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, asthma  colitis and arthritis seem to be mediated by the type and density of bacterial communities in the gut, oral cavity, lungs, lungs, lungs and, gut, gut and joints respectively.
Significant alterations of host bacterial community and also penetrating injuries, burns, massive tissue loss, generalized wasting- maybe stressful for human cells..These observations are consistent with Acinetobacter spp  Pseudomonas aeruginosa [20-22] infections in hosts with significant thermal or suninduced tissue losses.
C. Dying host cells seem to be a prerequisite for opportunistic infections (caused by rare microorganismsup (Table 1). Massive cellular death and degeneration almost always pre or co-exist with opportunistic infections.Rare microorganismscause infections in immunocompetent victimsupon severeinjurieswith massivecellular regeneration and death [19-22]. Rarity of causalmicroorganismsandabundance of essential elementsare consistent with cellular transformation.
Table 1:Cycle of Earth Living cells and non-living things transform to living cells and non-living things.
D. Emergenceof rarescavenger microbes during mammalian corpse decomposition. Death of a large and complex multicellular organism creates a giant factory of microorganisms that convert proteins and lipids into foul smelling compounds such as cadaverine , putrescine and ammonia. Studies of mice are, swine and human corpses indicate that microbial communities change significantly during decomposition . Studies are also consistent with the observation that the microbial decomposer community may emerge from multiple environments in which decomposer- scavenger organisms are often rare before decomposition begins . The spectacularmicrobialovergrowth and their low abundance in natureseem to be paradoxicaland consistentwith the central hypotheses . Furthermore the exact origin ofmicrobial decomposer communityis unknown.
E. Abundant presence of aspergillus fumigatusinorganic matter.Aspergillus fumigatus,opportunisticmicroorganisms are abundantin organic matter such as decaying leaves., compost heaps, silos ,grain storage beans andin the outdoor air oflarge scale composting of sewage sludge factories .
F. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the three causes of opportunistic infections and meningitis have higher evolutionary architecture  (Tables 2-5) consistent with the following properties: Greater genetic complexity. Greater genome size and functional complexity.For rare bacteria to be one of the 3mostcommon causes ofopportunistic infectionsis an obvious paradox. The statistical likelihood of this infection being importedis relatively low. This observation, along withthehigher geneticcomplexity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa significantly increases the likelihood thatthe abundance of essential substances at a timeof tissue death and degenerationmight have contributed to the infection.
G. Genetic susceptibility of immunocompetent hosts to develop tineaversicolor infections . Noteworthy are, clinical observations to suggest no host to host transmission.
Consistent withtheobservations that host cells can transform to other living cells,contain the properties ofearth thatgenerated the first bacteriaand consistent with the bidirectional nature of life and diverse observations of possible microbial transformation from stressedor dying host cells, we canstate thatcells ofcomplex multicellular organisms may transform to bacteria. Two weaknesses of this thesis are evident:
a) Specific pathways of transformation from animal cells to bacteria are unknown.
b) Absence of experimental validation.
Despite its weaknesses, the probability of” host cells ofcomplex multicellular organisms may transform to microorganisms is extremely high. Experimental validation is the next logical step. Experimental transformation of stressed or dying human cells to microorganismsseems to be a reasonable strategy.
Some infections may be caused by transformation of human cells to microorganisms. Some opportunistic and nosocomial Infections may represent transformation of human cells to virulent microorganisms. Prevention and treatment of infections should also address possible transformation of bacteria from human cells.
I am grateful to Nansen G SaleriPhD, James H Fetzer PhD and Fredrik Karlsson for their helpful input.