The objective was to present a brief communication on the components of the development of middle-range nursing theories, based on international references of the discipline. These middle-range nursing theories must be presented as to the purpose, the propositions, or theoretical statements, the schematization or modeling, the assumptions and guidelines for use in practice, as well as in research, teaching and care management. To increase the visibility of nursing, it is highlighted that these theories must consider the phenomena of the discipline, in this case, the diagnoses, results and nursing interventions using a classification system, which can contribute to the generation of nursing care indicators.
Keywords:Nursing Theories; Middle-Range Theories; Method; Knowledge; Nursing Phenomena
In Pakistan the bulk of soybean meal for animal feed production,
especially for poultry feed, is imported which has led to increase
production cost of poultry. Due to high price of imported feed
ingredients feed cost accounts for more than 75% of the total cost
of poultry production. Increasing cost of feed ingredients, especially
soybean meal, has slowed down the growth of the poultry business
in the country. Commercial poultry has traditionally been based
on soybean meal as the key protein source because of its high
nutritional profile. With the constantly increasing demand for
soybean meal throughout the world, it is estimated that its cost
will continue to further rise in the world market. Therefore it is the
need of the time to find alternative sustainable good quality protein
resources that can replace/substitute soybean meal in poultry
nutrition. Such an option of economical and quality protein source
may be provided by insect larva meal.
Food and Agriculture Organization has stressed upon the urgent need to explore alternative feed resources such as insect meal to fulfill the increasing demand for animal products for the growing world population (FAO, 2014). Among the insect species that have been gaining attention as alternatives to the conventional feedstuffs, housefly (Musca. domestica) larvae meal is certainly one of the most promising protein sources. Fly larva meal has been investigated as appealing for poultry due to its good nutritional profile  therefore, it may be used a possible substitute for soybean meal. Moreover, some recent research in poultry nutrition has been directed towards this rising nonconventional feed ingredient in the diet of different poultry species i.e. broiler chickens [3,2], commercial layer [4-7]quails [8,9] and partridges [10,11]. Results of these studies have shown encouraging effect on general health status, production performance and meat quality of poultry. Amongst the flies, Musca domestica (common housefly) larvae can be produced rapidly on organic waste materials converting lower price commodity into a high value feed stuff hence it may prove to be a very cheap and sustainable protein source for poultry ration. House fly larva meal has ideal nutrient composition and can easily be produced . Dietary inclusion of house fly meal as an alternative to the expensive soybean meal may help to reduce the cost of poultry production in Pakistan. However, very few studies are available in the literature on application of house fly larva meal as a possible alternative protein source on performance of broiler. Therefore, it is suggested to explore the comparative effect of replacement of soybean meal with house fly larva meal on performance, blood profile, nutrient digestibility and gut-histomorphology of broiler in Pakistan[13-15].
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- Dabbou S, Gai F, Biasato I, Capucchio MT,Biasibetti E, et al. (2018) Black soldier fly defatted meal as a dietary protein source for broiler chickens: Effects on growth performance, blood traits, gut morphology and histological features. J AnimSci Biotechnol9: 49.
- Schiavone A,Dabbou S,Petracci M,Zampiga M,Sirri F,et al. (2019) Black soldier fly defatted meal as a dietary protein source for broiler chickens: Effects on carcass traits, breast meat quality and safety. in press Pp:2397-2405.
- Anderson KE, GB Havenstein PK, Jenkins, J Osborne (2013) Changes in commercial laying stock performance, 1958-2011: thirty-seven flocks of the North Carolina random sample and subsequent layer performance and management tests. World Poult Sci J 69: 489-513.
- Al-Qazzaz MFA, DIsmail, Akit H, I L H (2016) Effect of using insect larvae meal as a complete protein source on quality Rev Bras Zootecn. 45(9): 518-523.
- Maurer V,Holinger M,Amsler Z, Früh B, Wohlfahrt J, et al. (2016) Replacement of soybean cake by Hermetiaillucens meal in diets for layers. J Insects Food and Feed 2: 89-90.
- Marono, Stefania Loponte, Rosa Lombardi, P Vassalotti, Giuseppe E Pero, et al.(2017) Productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens fed Hermetiaillucens larvae meal as total replacement of soybean meal from 24 to 45 weeks of age. Poult Sci 96(6): 1783-1790.
- Cullere M,Tasoniero G,Giaccone V,AcutiG,Marangon A, et al.(2018) Black soldier fly as dietary protein source for broiler quails: Meat proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile, oxidative status and sensory traits. Animal 12(3): 640-647.
- Cullere M,Tasoniero G,Giaccone V,Miotti-Scapin R,Claeys R, et al. (2016) Black soldier fly as dietary protein source for broiler quails: Apparent digestibility, excreta microbial load, feed choice, performance, carcass and meat traits. 10(12): 1923-1930.
- SecciG, Moniello G, Gasco L,Bovera F,Parisi G, et al. (2018) Barbary partridge meat quality as affected by Hermetiaillucens and Tenebrio molitor larvae meals in feeds. Food Res. 112: 291-298.
- Loponte R, Nizza S,Bovera F, De Riu N,Fliegerova K, et al. (2017) Growth performance, blood profiles and carcass traits of Barbary partridge (Alectorisbarbara) fed two different insect larvae meals (Tenebrio molitor and Hermetiaillucens). ResVet Sci115: 183-188.
- Gariglio M,Dabbou S,Biasato I,Capucchio MT, Colombino E, et al. (2019) Nutritional effects of the dietary inclusion of partially defatted Hermetiaillucens larva meal in Muscovy duck. JAnim Sci Biotechnol. in press.
- Anderson KE, GB Havenstein, PK Jenkins, J Osborne (2013) Changes in commercial laying stock performance, 1958-2011: thirty-seven flocks of the North Carolina random sample and subsequent layer performance and management tests. World Poult Sci J 69: 489-513.
- (2014) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Insects to feed the World. In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference, Wageningen (Ede), The Netherlands, 14-17.
- Gadzama U, RK Ndudim(2019) Nutritional Composition of Housefly Larvae Meal: A Sustainable Protein Source for Animal Production – A Review”. Acta Scientific Agriculture 3 (4): 74-77.